What is Display Advertising?

Main:    advertising          Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.  : 465 Sponsors of advertising are often businesses wishing to promote their products or services . Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser pays for and has control over the message. It differs from personal selling in that the message is non-personal, i.e., not directed to a particular individual.  : 661,672 Advertising is communicated through various mass media,  including traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television , radio , outdoor advertising or direct mail ; and new media such as search results , blogs, social media, websites or text messages. The actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement or ad for short. Commercial ads often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through  branding , which associates a product name or image with certain qualities in the minds of consumers. On the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct-response advertising . Non-commercial entities that advertise more than consumer products or services include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Non-profit organizations may use free modes of persuasion , such as a public service announcement . Advertising may also be used to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Modern advertising originated with the techniques introduced with tobacco advertising in the 1920s, most significantly with the campaigns of Edward Bernays , considered the founder of modern,  Madison Avenue  advertising.   Worldwide spending on advertising in 2015 amounted to an estimated US$ 529.43  billion .  Advertising’s projected distribution for 2017 was 40.4% on TV, 33.3% on digital, 9% on newspapers, 6.9% on magazines, 5.8% on outdoor and 4.3% on radio.  Internationally, the largest (big four) advertising-agency groups are Interpublic , Omnicom , Publicis , and WPP .  In Latin, advertere means to turn towards

                eMarketer          eMarketer is a 93%-owned subsidiary market research company that provides insights and trends related to digital marketing , media and commerce.      eMarketer, founded in 1996, is located in New York, NY. The company was acquired by Axel Springer in June 2016 for $242 million. 

                Facebook            Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California . The Facebook website was launched on February 4, 2004, by Mark Zuckerberg , along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates, Eduardo Saverin , Andrew McCollum , Dustin Moskovitz , and Chris Hughes . The founders had initially limited the website’s membership to Harvard students; however, later they expanded it to higher education institutions in the Boston area , the Ivy League schools, and Stanford University . Facebook gradually added support for students at various other universities, and eventually to high school students as well. Since 2006, anyone who claims to be at least 13 years old has been allowed to become a registered user of Facebook, though variations exist in the minimum age requirement, depending on applicable local laws. The Facebook name comes from the face book directories often given to United States university students. The company held its initial public offering (IPO) in February 2012, and began selling stock to the public three months later, reaching an original peak market capitalization of $104 billion, a new record. Facebook makes most of its revenue from advertisements which appear onscreen. Facebook may be accessed by a large range of devices with Internet connectivity, such as desktop , laptop and tablet computers, and smartphones . After registering to use the site, users can create a customized profile indicating their name, occupation, schools attended and so on. Users can add other users as friends , exchange messages, post status updates, share photos, videos and links, use various software applications (apps), and receive notifications of other users’ activity. Additionally, users may join common-interest user groups organized by workplace, school, hobbies or other topics, and categorize their friends into lists such as People From Work or Close Friends. Additionally, users can complain about or block unpleasant people. Facebook has more than 2 billion monthly active users as of June 2017. Its popularity has led to prominent media coverage for the company, including significant scrutiny over privacy and the psychological effects it has on users. In recent years, the company has faced intense pressure over the amount of fake news , hate speech and depictions of violence prevalent on its services, all of which it is attempting to counteract. In March of 2018 it was revealed that the political data analysis firm Cambridge Analytica harvested personal information from over 50 million Facebook profiles, which it then utilized in its work on behalf of Donald Trump ‘s presidential campaign. After initially trying to downplay the scope of the leak, Facebook, facing criticism and accusations of misleading investigators  banned Cambrdige Analytica from buying adds on the website. Reviews of documents and interviews with former Facebook employees suggested that as of 2018 Cambridge Analytica was still in possession of the information. The Guardian further reported that Facebook had known about this security breach for two years, but did nothing to protect its users.  The Massachusetts Attorney General announced that her office is launching an investigation into Facebook. 

                Twitter Twitter ( / t w ɪ t ər / ) is an online news and social networking service where users post and interact with messages, known as tweets. These messages were originally restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, the limit was doubled to 280 characters for all languages except Japanese, Korean, and Chinese.  Registered users can post tweets, but those who are unregistered can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, Short Message Service ( SMS ) or mobile device application software (app).  Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco, California , and has more than 25 offices around the world.  Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey , Noah Glass , Biz Stone , and Evan Williams and launched in July of that year. The service rapidly gained worldwide popularity. In 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day,  and the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day.    In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as the SMS of the Internet.   As of 2016, Twitter had more than 319 million monthly active users .  On the day of the 2016 U.S. presidential election , Twitter proved to be the largest source of breaking news, with 40 million election-related tweets sent by 10 p.m. ( Eastern Time ) that day. 

History  Ad Networks     An online advertising network or ad network is a company that connects advertisers to websites that want to host advertisements. The key function of an ad network is aggregation of ad space supply from publishers and matching it with advertiser demand. The phrase ad network by itself is media-neutral in the sense that there can be a Television Ad Network or a Print Ad Network, but is increasingly used to mean online ad network as the effect of aggregation of publisher ad space and sale to advertisers is most commonly seen in the online space. The fundamental difference between traditional media ad networks and online ad networks is that online ad networks use a central ad server to deliver advertisements to consumers, which enables targeting, tracking and reporting of impressions in ways not possible with analog media alternatives.

                targeting              Targeted advertising is a form of advertising where online advertisers can use sophisticated methods to target the most receptive audiences with certain traits, based on the product or person the advertiser is promoting.  These traits can either be demographic which are focused on race, economic status, sex, age, the level of education, income level and employment or they can be psychographic focused which are based on the consumer’s values, personality, attitudes, opinions, lifestyles and interests.  They can also be behavioral variables, such as browser history, purchase history, and other recent activity. Targeted advertising is focused on certain traits and the consumers who are likely to have a strong preference will receive the message instead of those who have no interest and whose preferences do not match a product’s attribute. This eliminates wastage.  Traditional forms of advertising, including billboards, newspapers, magazines and radio, are progressively becoming replaced by online advertisements.  Information and communication technology (ICT) space has transformed over recent years, resulting in targeted advertising to stretch across all ICT technologies, such as web, IPTV , and mobile environments. In next generation advertising, the importance of targeted advertisements will radically increase, as it spreads across numerous ICT channels cohesively.  Through the emergence of new online channels, the need for targeted advertising is increasing because companies aim to minimize wasted advertising by means of information technology.  Most targeted new media advertising currently uses second-order proxies for targetings, such as tracking online or mobile web activities of consumers, associating historical web page consumer demographics with new consumer web page access, using a search word as the basis for implied interest, or contextual advertising . 

                RTB (real time bidding) technology          Real-time bidding ( RTB ) is a means by which advertising inventory is bought and sold on a per-impression basis, via programmatic instantaneous auction, similar to financial markets.  With real-time bidding, advertising buyers bid on an impression and, if the bid is won, the buyer’s ad is instantly displayed on the publisher’s site.  Real-time bidding lets advertisers manage and optimize ads from multiple ad-networks by granting the user access to a multitude of different networks, allowing them to create and launch advertising campaigns, prioritize networks and allocate percentages of unsold inventory, known as backfill.  Real-time bidding is distinguishable from static auctions by how it is a per-impression way of bidding whereas static auctions are groups of up to several thousand impressions.  RTB is promoted as being more effective than static auctions for both advertisers and publishers in terms of advertising inventory sold, though the results vary by execution and local conditions.

First online advertisement           HotWired            Hotwired (1994–1999) was the first commercial web magazine , launched on October 27, 1994. Although it was part of Wired Ventures , Hotwired was a separate entity from Wired , the print magazine, and had original content. 

Importance of formats of display ads      Rich Media          Interactive media normally refers to products and services on digital computer-based systems which respond to the user’s actions by presenting content such as text , moving image , animation , video , audio , and video games .

                Interstitials         On the web , interstitials are web pages displayed before or after an expected content page, often to display advertisements or confirm the user’s age (prior to showing age-restricted material). Most interstitial advertisements are delivered by an ad server . Some people take issue with the use of such pages to present online advertising before allowing users to see the content they were trying to access

                Native advertising           Native advertising is a type of advertising , mostly online , that matches the form and function of the platform upon which it appears. In many cases, it manifests as either an article or video, produced by an advertiser with the specific intent to promote a product, while matching the form and style which would otherwise be seen in the work of the platform’s editorial staff. The word native refers to this coherence of the content with the other media that appears on the platform. Product placement (embedded marketing) is a precursor to native advertising. Instead of embedded marketing’s technique of placing the product within the content, in native marketing the product and content are merged. An important aspect of advertising in general is net impression, which is a reasonable consumer’s understanding of an ad. The power within native advertising, however, is to inhibit a consumers’ ad recognition by blending the ad into the native content of the platform, making many consumers unaware they are looking at an ad to begin with. The sponsored content on social media, like any other type of native advertising, can be difficult to be properly identified by the Federal Trade Commission because of the rather ambiguous nature. Native advertising frequently bypasses this net impression standard, which makes them problematic.  Because there is a merger of advertising and content, the legal status of native advertising is uncertain,  and the Federal Trade Commission held a workshop on advertorials and other disguised advertising in 2013.  

                Interactive Advertising Bureau  The Interactive Advertising Bureau ( IAB ) is an advertising business organization that develops industry standards , conducts research , and provides legal support for the online advertising industry. The organization represents a large number of the most prominent media outlets globally, but mostly in the United States and in Europe

                web banner       A web banner or banner ad is a form of advertising on the World Wide Web delivered by an ad server . This form of online advertising entails embedding an advertisement into a web page . It is intended to attract traffic to a website by linking to the website of the advertiser. In many cases, banners are delivered by a central ad server . When the advertiser scans their logfiles and detects that a web user has visited the advertiser’s site from the content site by clicking on the banner ad, the advertiser sends the content provider some small amount of money (usually around five to ten US cents).  This payback system is often how the content provider is able to pay for the Internet access to supply the content in the first place. Usually though, advertisers use ad networks to serve their advertisements, resulting in a revshare system and higher quality ad placement. Web banners function the same way as traditional advertisements are intended to function: notifying consumers of the product or service and presenting reasons why the consumer should choose the product in question, a fact first documented on HotWired in 1996 by researchers Rex Briggs and Nigel Hollis.  Web banners differ in that the results for advertisement campaigns may be monitored real-time and may be targeted to the viewer’s interests. Behavior is often tracked through the use of a click tag . Many web surfers regard these advertisements as annoying because they distract from a web page’s actual content or waste bandwidth . In some cases, web banners cover screen content that the user wishes to see. Newer web browsers often include software  adblocker  options to disable pop-ups or block images from selected websites. Another way of avoiding banners is to use a proxy server that blocks them, such as Privoxy . Web browsers may also have extensions available that block banners, for example Adblock Plus for Mozilla Firefox , or AdThwart for Google Chrome and ie7pro for Internet Explorer .

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