Main: advertising Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. : 465 Sponsors of advertising are often businesses wishing to promote their products or services . Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser pays for and has control over the message. It differs from personal selling in that the message is non-personal, i.e., not directed to a particular individual. : 661,672 Advertising is communicated through various mass media, including traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television , radio , outdoor advertising or direct mail ; and new media such as search results , blogs, social media, websites or text messages. The actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement or ad for short. Commercial ads often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding , which associates a product name or image with certain qualities in the minds of consumers. On the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct-response advertising . Non-commercial entities that advertise more than consumer products or services include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Non-profit organizations may use free modes of persuasion , such as a public service announcement . Advertising may also be used to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Modern advertising originated with the techniques introduced with tobacco advertising in the 1920s, most significantly with the campaigns of Edward Bernays , considered the founder of modern, Madison Avenue advertising. Worldwide spending on advertising in 2015 amounted to an estimated US$ 529.43 billion . Advertising’s projected distribution for 2017 was 40.4% on TV, 33.3% on digital, 9% on newspapers, 6.9% on magazines, 5.8% on outdoor and 4.3% on radio. Internationally, the largest (big four) advertising-agency groups are Interpublic , Omnicom , Publicis , and WPP . In Latin, advertere means to turn towards.
industry standards A technical standard is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical systems . It is usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria, methods, processes and practices. In contrast, a custom, convention , company product, corporate standard, and so forth that becomes generally accepted and dominant is often called a de facto standard . A technical standard may be developed privately or unilaterally, for example by a corporation, regulatory body, military, etc. Standards can also be developed by groups such as trade unions, and trade associations. Standards organizations often have more diverse input and usually develop voluntary standards: these might become mandatory if adopted by a government (i.e. through legislation ), business contract, etc. The standardization process may be by edict or may involve the formal consensus of technical experts
research Research comprises creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge , including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems , or develop new theories . A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. Research projects can be used to develop further knowledge on a topic, or in the example of a school research project, they can be used to further a student’s research prowess to prepare them for future jobs or reports. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research ) are documentation , discovery , interpretation , or the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies , which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific , humanities , artistic , economic, social , business, marketing , practitioner research , life, technological , etc.
online advertising Online advertising , also called online marketing or Internet advertising or web advertising , is a form of marketing and advertising which uses the Internet to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers. Consumers view online advertising as an unwanted distraction with few benefits and have increasingly turned to ad blocking for a variety of reasons. It includes email marketing, search engine marketing (SEM), social media marketing , many types of display advertising (including web banner advertising), and mobile advertising . Like other advertising media, online advertising frequently involves both a publisher, who integrates advertisements into its online content, and an advertiser, who provides the advertisements to be displayed on the publisher’s content. Other potential participants include advertising agencies who help generate and place the ad copy, an ad server which technologically delivers the ad and tracks statistics, and advertising affiliates who do independent promotional work for the advertiser. In 2016, Internet advertising revenues in the United States surpassed those of cable television and broadcast television . : 14 In 2017, Internet advertising revenues in the United States totaled $83.0 billion, a 14% increase over the $72.50 billion in revenues in 2016. Many common online advertising practices are controversial and increasingly subject to regulation. Online ad revenues may not adequately replace other publishers’ revenue streams. Declining ad revenue has led some publishers to hide their content behind paywalls .
Randall Rothenberg Randall Rothenberg is a business executive, author, and former news and business reporter. Since 2007 (with a brief interruption) he has been the president and CEO of the Interactive Advertising Bureau , the trade association for interactive marketing in the U.S. In 2017 Patrick Dolan assumed the role of president at the trade association.
media consumption Media consumption or media diet is the sum of information and entertainment media taken in by an individual or group. It includes activities such as interacting with new media , reading books and magazines , watching television and film , and listening to radio . An active media consumer must have the capacity for skepticism , judgement, free thinking , questioning, and understanding.
metadata Metadata is data that provides information about other data. Three distinct types of metadata exist: descriptive metadata , structural metadata , and administrative metadata . Descriptive metadata describes a resource for purposes such as discovery and identification. It can include elements such as title, abstract, author, and keywords. Structural metadata is metadata about containers of data and indicates how compound objects are put together, for example, how pages are ordered to form chapters. It describes the types, versions, relationships and other characteristics of digital materials. Administrative metadata provides information to help manage a resource, such as when and how it was created, file type and other technical information, and who can access it
Video Ad Serving Template VAST (Video Ad Serving Template) is a specification released by the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) that sets a standard for communication requirements between ad servers and video players . It is a data structure declared using XML . VAST has 6 versions: 1.0 (deprecated), 1.1 (deprecated), 2.0, 2.0.1(The schema version as the official VAST 2.0 schema) , 3.0 and 4.0
display advertising Display advertising is advertising on websites or apps through banners or other ad formats made of text, images, flash, video, and audio. The main purpose of display advertising is to deliver general advertisements and brand messages to site visitors. According to eMarketer , Facebook and Twitter will take 33% of display ad spending market share by 2017. Google’s display campaigns reach 80% of global internet users. . Also, desktop display advertising has eclipsed search ad buying in 2014, with mobile ad spending to overtake display in 2015.
Association of National Advertisers The Association of National Advertisers ( ANA ) is a representative body for the marketing community in the United States . Its headquarters is in New York City and it has another office in Washington, D.C. . ANA’s membership includes over 600 companies with 10,000 brands that collectively spend over 250 billion dollars in marketing communications and advertising .
American Association of Advertising Agencies The American Association of Advertising Agencies ( AAAA or 4A’s ) is an American advertising agency trade association . Founded in 1917, their website states that 4A’s membership produces approximately 80 percent of the total advertising volume placed by agencies nationwide. The association issues annual awards for the best agencies, in different categories. The current Chief Executive Officer is Marla Kaplowitz , while its chairman is Bill Koenigsberg . In July 2016, it was announced that Nancy Hill would step down as chairman and CEO in June 2017.
viewability metric In the online advertising industry, a Viewable Impression is a metric of ads which were actually viewable when served (in part, entirely or based on other conditional parameters). The first system to deliver reports based on a Viewable Impression metric for standard IAB ( Interactive Advertising Bureau ) Display ad units, called RealVu, was developed by Rich Media Worldwide and accredited by the Media Rating Council on March 9, 2010. Other companies to offer viewable impressions include DMA-Institute OnScroll, C3 Metrics, Comscore, and AdYapper, while MSNBC utilizes ServeView, a proprietary system in use since 2010. The definition of a Viewable Impression may depend on the type of the ad units and the reporting system. For example, a Viewable Impression for ads of pre-defined size delivered to pre-defined space on the content page is registered by RealVu when the Ad Content is loaded, rendered, and at least 60% of the ad surface area is within the visible area of a viewer’s browser window on an in focus web page for at least one second. Click-through is enabled at the moment of the viewable impression. Viewable Impressions were developed as an improvement of the online impression metrics measured by first ad servers developed in the mid-1990s, which analyze HTTP requests in a server log and cannot provide information on events fired by a viewer’s browser; thus, they cannot measure whether ad content was actually visible to a viewer.
GroupM Interaction GroupM is the world’s largest advertising media company in terms of billings. It is headquartered in New York City with over 30,000 employees and 400 global offices in 81 countries. GroupM was formed in 2003 by WPP Group to serve as the parent company of WPP’s media agencies including Maxus , MEC , MediaCom , Mindshare , QUISMA, Xaxis , Outrider, Catalyst, Quasar, IEG, Movent, Vocanic, Essence Digital Inc, and Plista. It handles over 32% of the world’s media billings making it the world’s largest media investment management operation. Kelly Clark is Global CEO of GroupM and manages the worldwide operations including the management of GroupM’s agencies worldwide. Irwin Gotlieb is Chairman of GroupM and focuses on the overall strategic direction of GroupM.
Controversy Do Not Track The Do Not Track ( DNT ) header is the proposed HTTP header field DNT that requests that a web application disable either its tracking or cross-site user tracking (the ambiguity remains unresolved) of an individual user. The Do Not Track header was originally proposed in 2009 by researchers Christopher Soghoian , Sid Stamm, and Dan Kaminsky . Efforts to standardize Do Not Track by the W3C in the Tracking Preference Expression (DNT) Working Group are currently advanced at Candidate Recommendation status (as of 20 August 2015). In December 2010, Microsoft announced support for the DNT mechanism in its Internet Explorer 9 web browser. Mozilla’s Firefox became the first browser to implement the feature, while Internet Explorer, Apple’s Safari , Opera and Google Chrome all later added support. The header field name is DNT and it currently accepts three values: 1 in case the user does not want to be tracked (opt out) , 0 in case the user consents to being tracked (opt in) , or null (no header sent) if the user has not expressed a preference. The default behavior required by the standard is not to send the header unless the user enables the setting via their browser or their choice is implied by use of that specific browser.
Mozilla Mozilla (stylized as moz://a ) is a free software community founded in 1998 by members of Netscape . The Mozilla community uses, develops, spreads and supports Mozilla products, thereby promoting exclusively free software and open standards, with only minor exceptions. The community is supported institutionally by the not-for-profit Mozilla Foundation and its tax-paying subsidiary, the Mozilla Corporation . Mozilla’s products include the Firefox web browser, Thunderbird e-mail client, Firefox OS mobile operating system, Bugzilla bug tracking system, Gecko layout engine, Pocket read-it-later-online service, and others.
HTTP cookies An HTTP cookie (also called web cookie , Internet cookie , browser cookie , or simply cookie ) is a small piece of data sent from a website and stored on the user’s computer by the user’s web browser while the user is browsing. Cookies were designed to be a reliable mechanism for websites to remember stateful information (such as items added in the shopping cart in an online store) or to record the user’s browsing activity (including clicking particular buttons, logging in , or recording which pages were visited in the past). They can also be used to remember arbitrary pieces of information that the user previously entered into form fields such as names, addresses, passwords, and credit card numbers. Other kinds of cookies perform essential functions in the modern web. Perhaps most importantly, authentication cookies are the most common method used by web servers to know whether the user is logged in or not, and which account they are logged in with. Without such a mechanism, the site would not know whether to send a page containing sensitive information, or require the user to authenticate themselves by logging in. The security of an authentication cookie generally depends on the security of the issuing website and the user’s web browser , and on whether the cookie data is encrypted. Security vulnerabilities may allow a cookie’s data to be read by a hacker , used to gain access to user data, or used to gain access (with the user’s credentials) to the website to which the cookie belongs (see cross-site scripting and cross-site request forgery for examples). The tracking cookies, and especially third-party tracking cookies , are commonly used as ways to compile long-term records of individuals’ browsing histories – a potential privacy concern that prompted European and U.S. lawmakers to take action in 2011. European law requires that all websites targeting European Union member states gain informed consent from users before storing non-essential cookies on their device. Google project zero researcher Jann Horn describes ways cookies can be read by intermediaries , like Wi-Fi hostspot providers. He recommends to use the browser in incognito mode in such circumstances.
Firefox Mozilla Firefox (or simply Firefox ) is a free and open-source web browser developed by Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, Mozilla Corporation . Firefox is available for Windows , macOS and Linux operating systems . Its sibling, Firefox for Android , is available for Android . Firefox uses the Gecko layout engine to render web pages, which implements current and anticipated web standards . An additional version, Firefox for iOS , was released in late 2015; however, because of artificial restrictions imposed by Apple Inc. , it is forced to use the platform-bundled WebKit layout engine. Firefox was created in 2002 under the codename Phoenix by the Mozilla community members who desired a standalone browser, rather than the Mozilla Application Suite bundle. During its beta phase, Firefox proved to be popular with its testers and was praised for its speed, security, and add-ons compared to Microsoft ‘s then-dominant Internet Explorer6 . Firefox was released in November 2004, and challenged Internet Explorer ‘s dominance with 60 million downloads within nine months. Firefox is the spiritual successor of Netscape Navigator , as the Mozilla community was created by Netscape in 1998 before their acquisition by AOL . Firefox usage grew to a peak of 32% at the end of 2009, temporarily making version 3.5 the world’s most popular browser. Usage then declined in competition with Google Chrome . As of February2018 , Firefox has 11.54% usage share as a desktop browser, according to StatCounter , making it the second most popular web browser; usage across all platforms is lower at 5.5%. Firefox is still the most popular desktop browser in Cuba (even most popular overall at 62.77% ) and Eritrea with 78.3% and 82.96% of the market share, respectively. According to Mozilla, as of December2014 there were half a billion Firefox users around the world.
Interactive advertising Interactive advertising uses online or offline interactive media to communicate with consumers and to promote products, brands, services, and public service announcements, corporate or political groups. In the inaugural issue of the Journal of Interactive Advertising , editors Li and Leckenby (2000) defined interactive advertising as the paid and unpaid presentation and promotion of products, services and ideas by an identified sponsor through mediated means involving mutual action between consumers and producers. This is most commonly performed through the internet; often through the use of an ad server that can deliver a variety of interactive advertising units.
Internet Marketing Online advertising , also called online marketing or Internet advertising or web advertising , is a form of marketing and advertising which uses the Internet to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers. Consumers view online advertising as an unwanted distraction with few benefits and have increasingly turned to ad blocking for a variety of reasons. It includes email marketing, search engine marketing (SEM), social media marketing , many types of display advertising (including web banner advertising), and mobile advertising . Like other advertising media, online advertising frequently involves both a publisher, who integrates advertisements into its online content, and an advertiser, who provides the advertisements to be displayed on the publisher’s content. Other potential participants include advertising agencies who help generate and place the ad copy, an ad server which technologically delivers the ad and tracks statistics, and advertising affiliates who do independent promotional work for the advertiser. In 2016, Internet advertising revenues in the United States surpassed those of cable television and broadcast television . : 14 In 2017, Internet advertising revenues in the United States totaled $83.0 billion, a 14% increase over the $72.50 billion in revenues in 2016. Many common online advertising practices are controversial and increasingly subject to regulation. Online ad revenues may not adequately replace other publishers’ revenue streams. Declining ad revenue has led some publishers to hide their content behind paywalls .
Display advertising Display advertising is advertising on websites or apps through banners or other ad formats made of text, images, flash, video, and audio. The main purpose of display advertising is to deliver general advertisements and brand messages to site visitors. According to eMarketer , Facebook and Twitter will take 33% of display ad spending market share by 2017. Google’s display campaigns reach 80% of global internet users. . Also, desktop display advertising has eclipsed search ad buying in 2014, with mobile ad spending to overtake display in 2015.
Behavioral targeting Behavioral targeting comprises a range of technologies and techniques used by online website brands , publishers and advertisers aimed at increasing the effectiveness of marketing and advertising using user web-browsing behavior information. In particular, behavioral targeting uses information collected from an individual’s web-browsing behavior (e.g., the pages that they have visited or searched) to select advertisements to display. This activity extends to behavioral marketing by using that same browsing behavior to prompt relevant email and onsite messaging to users and consumers. When a consumer visits a web site, the pages they visit, the amount of time they view each page, the links they click on, the searches they make, and the things that they interact with, allow sites to collect that data, and other factors, to create a ‘ profile ‘ that links to that visitor’s web browser. As a result, site publishers can use this data to create defined audience segments based upon visitors that have similar profiles. When visitors return to a specific site or a network of sites using the same web browser, those profiles can be used to allow marketers and advertisers to position their online ads and messaging in front of those visitors who exhibit a greater level of interest and intent for the products and services being offered. Behavioral targeting has emerged as one of the main technologies used to increase the efficiency and profits of digital marketing and advertisements, as media providers are able to provide individual users with highly relevant advertisements. On the theory that properly targeted ads and messaging will fetch more consumer interest, publishers can charge a premium for behaviorally targeted ads and marketers can achieve Behavioral marketing can be used on its own or in conjunction with other forms of targeting based on factors like geography, demographics or contextual web page content (list of Facebook’s Detailed Targeting options ). It’s worth noting that many practitioners also refer to this process as audience targeting. Major advantages of Behavioral marketing are that it will help in reaching surfers with affinity, reach surfers that were not exposed to a media campaign, contact surfers close to conversion and in reconnecting with prospects or customers.
Contextual advertising Contextual advertising is a form of targeted advertising for advertisements appearing on websites or other media, such as content displayed in mobile browsers . The advertisements themselves are selected and served by automated systems based on the identity of the user and the content displayed.