What is Search Engine Marketing?

What is Search Engine Marketing?

Main:    Internet marketing         Digital marketing is the marketing of products or services using digital technologies, mainly on the Internet , but also including mobile phones, display advertising , and any other digital medium.  Digital marketing’s development since the 1990s and 2000s has changed the way brands and businesses use technology for marketing.  As digital platforms are increasingly incorporated into marketing plans and everyday life,  and as people use digital devices instead of visiting physical shops,   digital marketing campaigns are becoming more prevalent and efficient. Digital marketing methods such as search engine optimization (SEO), search engine marketing (SEM), content marketing, influencer marketing , content automation, campaign marketing, data -driven marketing,  e-commerce marketing, social media marketing , social media optimization , e-mail direct marketing , display advertising, e–books, and optical disks and games are becoming more common in our advancing technology. In fact, digital marketing now extends to non-Internet channels that provide digital media, such as mobile phones ( SMS and MMS ), callback, and on-hold mobile ring tones. 

                websites             A website  is a collection of related web pages , including multimedia content, typically identified with a common domain name , and published on at least one web server . A website may be accessible via a public Internet Protocol (IP) network, such as the Internet , or a private local area network (LAN), by referencing a uniform resource locator (URL) that identifies the site. Websites can have many functions and can be used in various fashions; a website can be a personal website , a corporate website for a company, a government website, an organization website, etc. Websites are typically dedicated to a particular topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and social networking to providing news and education. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web , while private websites, such as a company’s website for its employees, are typically a part of an intranet . Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites, are documents , typically composed in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language ( HTML , XHTML ). They may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors . Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which may optionally employ encryption ( HTTP Secure , HTTPS) to provide security and privacy for the user. The user’s application, often a web browser , renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal . Hyperlinking between web pages conveys to the reader the site structure and guides the navigation of the site, which often starts with a home page containing a directory of the site web content . Some websites require user registration or subscription to access content. Examples of subscription websites include many business sites, news websites, academic journal websites, gaming websites, file-sharing websites, message boards , web-based email , social networking websites, websites providing real-time stock market data, as well as sites providing various other services. As of 2018, end users can access websites on a range of devices, including desktop and laptop computers , tablet computers , smartphones and smart TVs .

                search engine results pages       A search engine results page ( SERP ) is the page displayed by a web search engine in response to a query by a searcher. The main component of the SERP is the listing of results that are returned by the search engine in response to a keyword query , although the page may also contain other results such as advertisements.  The results are of two general types, organic (i.e., retrieved by the search engine’s algorithm) and sponsored (i.e., advertisements). The results are normally ranked by relevance to the query. Each result displayed on the SERP normally includes a title, a link that points to the actual page on the Web and a short description showing where the keywords have matched content within the page for organic results. For sponsored results, the advertiser chooses what to display. Due to the huge number of items that are available or related to the query there usually are several SERPs in response to a single search query as the search engine or the user’s preferences restrict viewing to a subset of results per page. Each succeeding page will tend to have lower ranking or lower relevancy results. Just like the world of traditional print media and its advertising, this enables competitive pricing for page real estate, but compounded by the dynamics of consumer expectations and intent— unlike static print media where the content and the advertising on every page is the same all of the time for all viewers, despite such hard copy being localized to some degree, usually geographic, like state, metro-area, city, or neighborhoods.

                search engine optimization        Search engine optimization ( SEO ) is the process of affecting the online visibility of a website or a web page in a web search engine ‘s unpaid results—often referred to as natural,  organic , or earned results. In general, the earlier (or higher ranked on the search results page), and more frequently a website appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search engine’s users; these visitors can then be converted into customers.  SEO may target different kinds of search, including image search , video search , academic search ,  news search, and industry-specific vertical search engines. SEO differs from local search engine optimization in that the latter is focused on optimizing a business’ online presence so that its web pages will be displayed by search engines when a user enters a local search for its products or services. The former instead is more focused on national or international searches. As an Internet marketing strategy, SEO considers how search engines work, the computer programmed algorithms which dictate search engine behavior, what people search for, the actual search terms or keywords typed into search engines, and which search engines are preferred by their targeted audience. Optimizing a website may involve editing its content, adding content, doing HTML , and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines. Promoting a site to increase the number of backlinks , or inbound links, is another SEO tactic. By May 2015, mobile search had surpassed desktop search.  In 2015, it was reported that Google is developing and promoting mobile search as a key feature within future products. In response, many brands are beginning to take a different approach to their Internet marketing strategies. 

                pay per click       Pay-per-click ( PPC ), also known as cost per click ( CPC ), is an internet advertising model used to direct traffic to websites, in which an advertiser pays a publisher (typically a website owner or a network of websites) when the ad is clicked. Pay-per-click is commonly associated with first-tier search engines (such as Google AdWords and Microsoft Bing Ads). With search engines , advertisers typically bid on keyword phrases relevant to their target market . In contrast, content sites commonly charge a fixed price per click rather than use a bidding system. PPC display advertisements, also known as banner ads , are shown on web sites with related content that have agreed to show ads and are typically not pay-per-click advertising. Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have also adopted pay-per-click as one of their advertising models. However, websites can offer PPC ads. Websites that utilize PPC ads will display an advertisement when a keyword query matches an advertiser’s keyword list, or when a content site displays relevant content. Such advertisements are called sponsored links or sponsored ads , and appear adjacent to, above, or beneath organic results on search engine results pages, or anywhere a web developer chooses on a content site.  The PPC advertising model is open to abuse through click fraud ,  although Google and others have implemented automated systems  to guard against abusive clicks by competitors or corrupt web developers. 

Market advertising         Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.  : 465 Sponsors of advertising are often businesses wishing to promote their products or services . Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser pays for and has control over the message. It differs from personal selling in that the message is non-personal, i.e., not directed to a particular individual.  : 661,672 Advertising is communicated through various mass media,  including traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television , radio , outdoor advertising or direct mail ; and new media such as search results , blogs, social media, websites or text messages. The actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement or ad for short. Commercial ads often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through  branding , which associates a product name or image with certain qualities in the minds of consumers. On the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct-response advertising . Non-commercial entities that advertise more than consumer products or services include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Non-profit organizations may use free modes of persuasion , such as a public service announcement . Advertising may also be used to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Modern advertising originated with the techniques introduced with tobacco advertising in the 1920s, most significantly with the campaigns of Edward Bernays , considered the founder of modern,  Madison Avenue  advertising.   Worldwide spending on advertising in 2015 amounted to an estimated US$ 529.43  billion .  Advertising’s projected distribution for 2017 was 40.4% on TV, 33.3% on digital, 9% on newspapers, 6.9% on magazines, 5.8% on outdoor and 4.3% on radio.  Internationally, the largest (big four) advertising-agency groups are Interpublic , Omnicom , Publicis , and WPP .  In Latin, advertere means to turn towards. 

History search engines A ‘ web search engine’ is a software system that is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web. The search results are generally presented in a line of results often referred to as search engine results pages (SERPs). The information may be a mix of web pages , images, and other types of files. Some search engines also mine data available in databases or open directories . Unlike web directories , which are maintained only by human editors, search engines also maintain real-time information by running an algorithm on a web crawler . Internet content that is not capable of being searched by a web search engine is generally described as the deep web .

                                Goto.com            Yahoo Search Marketing is a keyword-based  Pay per click  or  Sponsored search  Internet advertising service provided by Yahoo . Yahoo began offering this service after acquiring Overture Services, Inc. (formerly GoTo.com ). GoTo.com was an Idealab spin off and was the first company to successfully provide a pay-for-placement search service following previous attempts that were not well received.   

                AdWords             Google AdWords is an online advertising service developed by Google , where advertisers pay to display brief advertising copy , product listings, and video content within the Google ad network to web users.  Google AdWords’ system is based partly on cookies and partly on keywords determined by advertisers. Google uses these characteristics to place advertising copy on pages where they think it might be relevant. Advertisers pay when users divert their browsing to click on the advertising copy. Partner websites receive a portion of the generated income.  AdWords has evolved into Google ‘s main source of revenue, contributing to Google’s total advertising revenues of USD $43.7 billion in 2012.  AdWords offers services such as pay-per-click (PPC) advertising and cost-per-acquisition (CPA) advertising.  The AdWords program includes local, national, and international distribution. Google’s text advertisements are short, consisting of two headlines with a maximum of 30 characters each, a description with a maximum of 80 characters, and a display URL of 40 characters.These are called Adwords expanded text Ads. These mimic what the average search result looks like on Google. Image ads can be one of the several different standardized sizes as designated by the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB). In May 2016, Google announced its reformatting of ads to help consumers and advertisers succeed in a mobile-first world. The new format, called Expanded Text Ads, allows for 23% more text. This new format is available on both the Google Search Network and the Google Display network. It features two headlines with 30 characters each, replacing the standard of a single headline with 30 characters. The display URL has been replaced with two 15 character paths, not including the root domain. Sales and support for Google’s AdWords division in the United States is based in Mountain View, California , with major secondary offices in Hyderabad , Dublin , Singapore , Ann Arbor  and New York City . The third-largest US facility is the Googleplex ,  Google’s headquarters, which is located in Mountain View, California. Google AdWords engineering is based at the Googleplex, with major secondary offices in Los Angeles and New York. As of 2011, AdWords represented 96% of Google’s revenue. 

                Microsoft            Microsoft Corporation ( / m aɪ k r ə s ɒ f t / ,   abbreviated as MS ) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington . It develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software , consumer electronics , personal computers , and services. Its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems , the Microsoft Office suite , and the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers . Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface tablet lineup. As of 2016, it is the world’s largest software maker by revenue,  and one of the world’s most valuable companies .  The word Microsoft is a portmanteau of microcomputer and software.  Microsoft was founded by Paul Allen and Bill Gates on April 4, 1975, to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800 . It rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by Microsoft Windows . The company’s 1986 initial public offering (IPO), and subsequent rise in its share price, created three billionaires and an estimated 12,000 millionaires among Microsoft employees. Since the 1990s, it has increasingly diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions —their largest being the acquisition of LinkedIn for $26.2 billion in December 2016,  followed by Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion in May 2011.  As of 2015  , Microsoft is market-dominant in the IBM PC-compatible operating system market and the office software suite market, although it has lost the majority of the overall operating system market to Android .  The company also produces a wide range of other consumer and enterprise software for desktops and servers, including Internet search (with Bing ), the digital services market (through MSN ), mixed reality ( HoloLens ), cloud computing ( Azure ) and software development ( Visual Studio ). Steve Ballmer replaced Gates as CEO in 2000, and later envisioned a devices and services strategy.  This began with the acquisition of Danger Inc. in 2008,  entering the personal computer production market for the first time in June 2012 with the launch of the Microsoft Surface line of tablet computers ; and later forming Microsoft Mobile through the acquisition of Nokia ‘s devices and services division. Since Satya Nadella took over as CEO in 2014, the company has scaled back on hardware and has instead focused on cloud computing , a move that helped the company’s shares reach its highest value since December 1999.  

                Danny Sullivan  Danny Sullivan is California-based technologist, journalist  and an entrepreneur. He was the Chief Content Officer at Third Door Media, and co-founded Search Engine Land , an industry publication that covers news and information about search engines , and search marketing, SEO and SEM topics. Third Door Media also produces Marketing Land , a sister website that covers broader digital marketing topics including social media , display advertising , email marketing , analytics , mobile, and marketing technology. Search Engine Land and Marketing Land are owned by Third Door Media, of which Danny Sullivan was partner and chief content officer. He retired from his position as Chief Content Officer at Third Door Media in June 2017. In October 2017, Sullivan announced he will be joining Google as an adviser at the search division of the company. Danny is Google’s public Search Liaison: helping people better understand search and Google better hear public feedback.  Danny was one of the 50 marketing influencers, according to Entrepreneur , in 2015

Methods and metrics    Keyword research           Keyword research is a practice search engine optimization (SEO) professionals use to find and research alternative search terms that people enter into search engines while looking for a similar subject. Search engine optimization professionals research additional keywords , which they use to achieve better rankings in search engines. Once they find a niche keyword, they expanded on it to find similar keywords. Keyword suggestion tools usually aid the process, like the Google Adwords Keyword Planner , which offers a thesaurus and alternative keyword suggestions or by looking into Google Suggest.  Usually, the various search engines provide their own keyword suggestion tools, which also include the number of searches for each of those keywords. The keyword researcher uses this information to select the correct keyword, depending on the SEO goals of the website. Around 20–25% of searches are very specific long tail keywords entered into Google every single day. It’s easy to rank said keywords when there is the right amount of content and backlinks to match. Keyword research is a valuable and high return activity in the search marketing field.

                backlinks             A backlink for a given web resource is a link from some other website (the referrer) to that web resource (the referent ).  A web resource may be (for example) a website , web page , or web directory .  A backlink is a reference comparable to a citation . The quantity, quality, and relevance of backlinks for a web page are among the factors that search engines like Google evaluate in order to estimate how important the page is.   PageRank calculates the score for each web page based on how all the web pages are connected among themselves, and is one of the variables that Google Search uses to determine how high a web page should go in search results.  This weighting of backlinks is analogous to citation analysis of books, scholarly papers , and academic journals .   A Topical PageRank has been researched and implemented as well, which gives more weight to backlinks coming from the page of a same topic as a target page.  Some other words for backlink are incoming link , inbound link , inlink , inward link , and citation . 

                JavaScript            com.netscape.javascript-source  Type of format Scripting language Part of a series on JavaScript JavaScript syntax JavaScript library Unobtrusive JavaScript JavaScript engine Lists of Frameworks and Libraries Ajax frameworks JavaScript web frameworks Comparison of JavaScript frameworks List of JavaScript libraries JavaScript unit testing frameworks JavaScript Object Notation See also ECMAScript v t e JavaScript ( / dʒ ɑː v ə s k r ɪ p t / ),  often abbreviated as JS , is a high-level , interpreted programming language . It is a language which is also characterized as dynamic , weakly typed , prototype-based and multi-paradigm . Alongside HTML and CSS , JavaScript is one of the three core technologies of World Wide Web content engineering . It is used to make webpages interactive and provide online programs, including video games. The majority of websites employ it, and all modern web browsers support it without the need for plug-ins by means of a built-in JavaScript engine . Each of the many JavaScript engines represent a different implementation of JavaScript, all based on the ECMAScript specification, with some engines not supporting the spec fully, and with many engines supporting additional features beyond ECMA. As a multi-paradigm language, JavaScript supports event-driven , functional , and imperative (including object-oriented and prototype-based ) programming styles . It has an API for working with text, arrays , dates, regular expressions , and basic manipulation of the DOM , but the language itself does not include any I/O , such as networking, storage, or graphics facilities, relying for these upon the host environment in which it is embedded. Initially only implemented client-side in web browsers, JavaScript engines are now embedded in many other types of host software, including server-side in web servers and databases, and in non-web programs such as word processors and PDF software, and in runtime environments that make JavaScript available for writing mobile and desktop applications, including desktop widgets. Although there are strong outward similarities between JavaScript and Java, including language name, syntax , and respective standard libraries , the two languages are distinct and differ greatly in design; JavaScript was influenced by programming languages such as Self and Scheme . 

                WebTrends        Webtrends is a private company headquartered in Portland, Oregon , United States. It provides digital analytics, optimization and a number of other software solutions related to digital marketing. The company was founded in 1993, and is widely considered the first commercial web analytics solution.  It provides services to approximately 2,000 companies.

                W3C      ERCIM , France; Keio University / SFC , Japan; Beihang University , China  and many other offices around the world Region served Worldwide Membership 474 member organizations  Director Tim Berners-Lee Staff 62 Website www .w3 .org The World Wide Web Consortium ( W3C ) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or W3). Founded and currently led by Tim Berners-Lee , the consortium is made up of member organizations which maintain full-time staff for the purpose of working together in the development of standards for the World Wide Web . As of 24September2017  , the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has 474 members.   The W3C also engages in education and outreach, develops software and serves as an open forum for discussion about the Web.

                HTML    Hypertext Markup Language ( HTML ) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications . With Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and JavaScript , it forms a triad of cornerstone technologies for the World Wide Web .  Web browsers receive HTML documents from a web server or from local storage and render them into multimedia web pages. HTML describes the structure of a web page semantically and originally included cues for the appearance of the document. HTML elements are the building blocks of HTML pages. With HTML constructs, images and other objects, such as interactive forms, may be embedded into the rendered page. It provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links , quotes and other items. HTML elements are delineated by tags , written using angle brackets . Tags such as <img /> and <input /> introduce content into the page directly. Others such as <p>…</p> surround and provide information about document text and may include other tags as sub-elements. Browsers do not display the HTML tags, but use them to interpret the content of the page. HTML can embed programs written in a scripting language such as JavaScript which affect the behavior and content of web pages. Inclusion of CSS defines the look and layout of content. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), maintainer of both the HTML and the CSS standards, has encouraged the use of CSS over explicit presentational HTML since 1997. 

                Whois   WHOIS (pronounced as the phrase who is ) is a query and response protocol that is widely used for querying databases that store the registered users or assignees of an Internet resource, such as a domain name , an IP address block, or an autonomous system , but is also used for a wider range of other information. The protocol stores and delivers database content in a human-readable format.  The WHOIS protocol is documented in RFC 3912 .

Paid inclusion   search engine   A ‘ web search engine’ is a software system that is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web. The search results are generally presented in a line of results often referred to as search engine results pages (SERPs). The information may be a mix of web pages , images, and other types of files. Some search engines also mine data available in databases or open directories . Unlike web directories , which are maintained only by human editors, search engines also maintain real-time information by running an algorithm on a web crawler . Internet content that is not capable of being searched by a web search engine is generally described as the deep web .

                Website              A website  is a collection of related web pages , including multimedia content, typically identified with a common domain name , and published on at least one web server . A website may be accessible via a public Internet Protocol (IP) network, such as the Internet , or a private local area network (LAN), by referencing a uniform resource locator (URL) that identifies the site. Websites can have many functions and can be used in various fashions; a website can be a personal website , a corporate website for a company, a government website, an organization website, etc. Websites are typically dedicated to a particular topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and social networking to providing news and education. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web , while private websites, such as a company’s website for its employees, are typically a part of an intranet . Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites, are documents , typically composed in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language ( HTML , XHTML ). They may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors . Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which may optionally employ encryption ( HTTP Secure , HTTPS) to provide security and privacy for the user. The user’s application, often a web browser , renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal . Hyperlinking between web pages conveys to the reader the site structure and guides the navigation of the site, which often starts with a home page containing a directory of the site web content . Some websites require user registration or subscription to access content. Examples of subscription websites include many business sites, news websites, academic journal websites, gaming websites, file-sharing websites, message boards , web-based email , social networking websites, websites providing real-time stock market data, as well as sites providing various other services. As of 2018, end users can access websites on a range of devices, including desktop and laptop computers , tablet computers , smartphones and smart TVs .

                Yahoo! Yahoo! is a web services provider that is wholly owned by Verizon Communications through Oath Inc. ,   and headquartered in Sunnyvale, California . The original Yahoo! company was founded by Jerry Yang and David Filo in January 1994 and was incorporated on March 2, 1995.   Yahoo was one of the pioneers of the early Internet era in the 1990s.  It was globally known for its Web portal , search engine Yahoo! Search , and related services, including Yahoo! Directory , Yahoo! Mail , Yahoo! News , Yahoo! Finance , Yahoo! Groups , Yahoo! Answers , advertising , online mapping , video sharing , fantasy sports, and its social media website. At its height it was one of the most popular sites in the United States.  According to third-party web analytics providers, Alexa and SimilarWeb , Yahoo! was the highest-read news and media website, with over 7 billion views per month, being the sixth most visited website globally in 2016.    According to news sources, roughly 700 million people visited Yahoo websites every month.   Yahoo itself claimed it attracted more than half a billion consumers every month in more than 30 languages.  Once the most popular website in the U.S., Yahoo slowly declined, starting in the late 2000s,  and in 2017 Verizon Communications acquired most of Yahoo’s Internet business for $4.48 billion,  excluding its stakes in Alibaba Group and Yahoo! Japan , which were transferred to Yahoo’s successor company Altaba .

                Google Google LLC  is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware. Google was founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph.D. students at Stanford University , California . Together, they own about 14 percent of its shares and control 56 percent of the stockholder voting power through supervoting stock. They incorporated Google as a privately held company on September 4, 1998. An Initial public offering (IPO) took place on August 19, 2004, and Google moved to its new headquarters in Mountain View, California, nicknamed the Googleplex . In August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google, Alphabet’s leading subsidiary, will continue to be the umbrella company for Alphabet’s Internet interests. Upon completion of the restructure, Sundar Pichai was appointed CEO of Google, replacing Larry Page, who became the CEO of Alphabet. The company’s rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products, acquisitions, and partnerships beyond Google’s core search engine ( Google Search ). It offers services designed for work and productivity ( Google Docs, Sheets, and Slides ), email ( Gmail / Inbox ), scheduling and time management ( Google Calendar ), cloud storage ( Google Drive ), social networking ( Google+ ), instant messaging and video chat ( Google Allo / Duo / Hangouts ), language translation ( Google Translate ), mapping and turn-by-turn navigation ( Google Maps / Waze / Earth / Street View ), video sharing ( YouTube ), note-taking ( Google Keep ), and photo organizing and editing ( Google Photos ). The company leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, the Google Chrome web browser, and Chrome OS , a lightweight operating system based on the Chrome browser. Google has moved increasingly into hardware; from 2010 to 2015, it partnered with major electronics manufacturers in the production of its Nexus devices, and in October 2016, it released multiple hardware products (including the Google Pixel smartphone, Home smart speaker, Wifi mesh wireless router, and Daydream View virtual reality headset). The new hardware chief, Rick Osterloh, stated: a lot of the innovation that we want to do now ends up requiring controlling the end-to-end user experience. Google has also experimented with becoming an Internet carrier. In February 2010, it announced Google Fiber , a fiber-optic infrastructure that was installed in Kansas City; in April 2015, it launched Project Fi in the United States, combining Wi-Fi and cellular networks from different providers; and in 2016, it announced the Google Station initiative to make public Wi-Fi available around the world, with initial deployment in India. Alexa , a company that monitors commercial web traffic, lists Google.com as the most visited website in the world. Several other Google services also figure in the top 100 most visited websites, including YouTube and Blogger . Google is the most valuable brand in the world as of 2017,  but has received significant criticism involving issues such as privacy concerns , tax avoidance , antitrust , censorship , and search neutrality . Google’s mission statement , from the outset, was to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful, and its unofficial slogan was  Don’t be evil . In October 2015, the motto was replaced in the Alphabet corporate code of conduct by the phrase Do the right thing , while the original one was retained in the code of conduct of Google. 

                Ask.com               Ask.com (originally known as Ask Jeeves ) is a question answering -focused e-business and web search engine founded in 1996 by Garrett Gruener and David Warthen in Berkeley , California . The original software was implemented by Gary Chevsky from his own design. Warthen, Chevsky, Justin Grant, and others built the early AskJeeves.com website around that core engine. In late 2010, facing insurmountable competition from more popular search engines, the company outsourced its web search technology and returned to its roots as a question and answer site .  Douglas Leeds was elevated from president to CEO in 2010.  Ask.com has been criticized for its browser toolbar , which has been accused of behaving like malware due to its bundling with other software and the difficulty of its uninstallation. Three venture capital firms, Highland Capital Partners , Institutional Venture Partners , and The RODA Group were early investors.  Ask.com is currently owned by InterActiveCorp (IAC) under the NASDAQ symbol NASDAQ : IAC . Ask.com’s corporate headquarters are located at 555 City Center , in the Oakland City Center development in downtown Oakland, California .

                pay per click advertising                 Pay-per-click ( PPC ), also known as cost per click ( CPC ), is an internet advertising model used to direct traffic to websites, in which an advertiser pays a publisher (typically a website owner or a network of websites) when the ad is clicked. Pay-per-click is commonly associated with first-tier search engines (such as Google AdWords and Microsoft Bing Ads). With search engines , advertisers typically bid on keyword phrases relevant to their target market . In contrast, content sites commonly charge a fixed price per click rather than use a bidding system. PPC display advertisements, also known as banner ads , are shown on web sites with related content that have agreed to show ads and are typically not pay-per-click advertising. Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have also adopted pay-per-click as one of their advertising models. However, websites can offer PPC ads. Websites that utilize PPC ads will display an advertisement when a keyword query matches an advertiser’s keyword list, or when a content site displays relevant content. Such advertisements are called sponsored links or sponsored ads , and appear adjacent to, above, or beneath organic results on search engine results pages, or anywhere a web developer chooses on a content site.  The PPC advertising model is open to abuse through click fraud ,  although Google and others have implemented automated systems  to guard against abusive clicks by competitors or corrupt web developers. 

                search engine optimization        Search engine optimization ( SEO ) is the process of affecting the online visibility of a website or a web page in a web search engine ‘s unpaid results—often referred to as natural,  organic , or earned results. In general, the earlier (or higher ranked on the search results page), and more frequently a website appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search engine’s users; these visitors can then be converted into customers.  SEO may target different kinds of search, including image search , video search , academic search ,  news search, and industry-specific vertical search engines. SEO differs from local search engine optimization in that the latter is focused on optimizing a business’ online presence so that its web pages will be displayed by search engines when a user enters a local search for its products or services. The former instead is more focused on national or international searches. As an Internet marketing strategy, SEO considers how search engines work, the computer programmed algorithms which dictate search engine behavior, what people search for, the actual search terms or keywords typed into search engines, and which search engines are preferred by their targeted audience. Optimizing a website may involve editing its content, adding content, doing HTML , and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines. Promoting a site to increase the number of backlinks , or inbound links, is another SEO tactic. By May 2015, mobile search had surpassed desktop search.  In 2015, it was reported that Google is developing and promoting mobile search as a key feature within future products. In response, many brands are beginning to take a different approach to their Internet marketing strategies. 

Comparison with SEO    AdWords             Google AdWords is an online advertising service developed by Google , where advertisers pay to display brief advertising copy , product listings, and video content within the Google ad network to web users.  Google AdWords’ system is based partly on cookies and partly on keywords determined by advertisers. Google uses these characteristics to place advertising copy on pages where they think it might be relevant. Advertisers pay when users divert their browsing to click on the advertising copy. Partner websites receive a portion of the generated income.  AdWords has evolved into Google ‘s main source of revenue, contributing to Google’s total advertising revenues of USD $43.7 billion in 2012.  AdWords offers services such as pay-per-click (PPC) advertising and cost-per-acquisition (CPA) advertising.  The AdWords program includes local, national, and international distribution. Google’s text advertisements are short, consisting of two headlines with a maximum of 30 characters each, a description with a maximum of 80 characters, and a display URL of 40 characters.These are called Adwords expanded text Ads. These mimic what the average search result looks like on Google. Image ads can be one of the several different standardized sizes as designated by the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB). In May 2016, Google announced its reformatting of ads to help consumers and advertisers succeed in a mobile-first world. The new format, called Expanded Text Ads, allows for 23% more text. This new format is available on both the Google Search Network and the Google Display network. It features two headlines with 30 characters each, replacing the standard of a single headline with 30 characters. The display URL has been replaced with two 15 character paths, not including the root domain. Sales and support for Google’s AdWords division in the United States is based in Mountain View, California , with major secondary offices in Hyderabad , Dublin , Singapore , Ann Arbor  and New York City . The third-largest US facility is the Googleplex ,  Google’s headquarters, which is located in Mountain View, California. Google AdWords engineering is based at the Googleplex, with major secondary offices in Los Angeles and New York. As of 2011, AdWords represented 96% of Google’s revenue. 

                Bing Ads              Bing Ads (formerly Microsoft adCenter and MSN adCenter ) is a service that provides pay per click advertising on both the Bing and Yahoo! search engines . As of June 2015, Bing Ads has 33% market share in the United States. 

                search retargeting           Search retargeting is a form of retargeting employed by online marketers that target an audience based on the previous searches they conduct on other websites . Unlike site retargeting , search retargeting is designed to find new customers which have likely never been to a marketer’s website before. While search advertising is a method of placing online advertisements within the results of search engine queries, search retargeting attempts to extend the interaction with the same searchers when they move away from search query results pages to other online activities and websites. Search retargeting ads are typically displayed as display ads . Companies in search retargeting include Affectv, Captify, Nano Interactive, Rubicon Project, Magnetic, Onedigitalad, Simpli.fi, and Yahoo! .  

                social media marketing                Social media marketing is the use of social media platforms and websites to promote a product or service.  Although the terms e-marketing and digital marketing are still dominant in academia, social media marketing is becoming more popular for both practitioners and researchers.  Most social media platforms have built-in data analytics tools, which enable companies to track the progress, success, and engagement of ad campaigns. Companies address a range of stakeholders through social media marketing, including current and potential customers, current and potential employees, journalists , bloggers , and the general public. On a strategic level, social media marketing includes the management of a marketing campaign, governance , setting the scope (e.g. more active or passive use) and the establishment of a firm’s desired social media culture and tone. To use social media effectively, firms should learn to allow customers and Internet users to post user-generated content (e.g., online comments, product reviews, etc.), also known as  earned media , rather than use marketer-prepared advertising copy.    While often associated with companies, as of 2016, a range of not-for-profit organizations and government organizations are engaging in social media marketing.

                Federal Trade Commission         The Federal Trade Commission ( FTC ) is an independent agency of the United States government , established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act . Its principal mission is the promotion of consumer protection and the elimination and prevention of anticompetitive business practices, such as coercive monopoly . The Federal Trade Commission Act was one of President Woodrow Wilson ‘s major acts against trusts . Trusts and trust-busting were significant political concerns during the Progressive Era . Since its inception, the FTC has enforced the provisions of the Clayton Act , a key antitrust statute, as well as the provisions of the FTC Act , 15 U.S.C.  §41 et seq. Over time, the FTC has been delegated with the enforcement of additional business regulation statutes and has promulgated a number of regulations (codified in Title 16 of the Code of Federal Regulations ).

                Ralph Nader       Ralph Nader ( / n eɪ d ər / ; born February 27, 1934)   is an American political activist, author, lecturer, and attorney, noted for his involvement in consumer protection , environmentalism and government reform causes. The son of Lebanese immigrants to the United States, Nader was educated at Princeton and Harvard and first came to prominence in 1965 with the publication of the bestselling book Unsafe at Any Speed , a critique of the safety record of American automobile manufacturers that became known as one of the most important journalistic pieces of the 20th century. Following the publication of Unsafe at Any Speed , Nader led a group of volunteer law students — dubbed Nader’s Raiders — in a groundbreaking investigation of the Federal Trade Commission , leading directly to that agency’s overhaul and reform. In the 1970s, Nader leveraged his growing popularity to establish a number of advocacy and watchdog groups including the Public Interest Research Group , the Center for Auto Safety , and Public Citizen . Nader’s activism has been directly credited with the passage of several landmark pieces of American consumer protection legislation including the Clean Water Act , the Freedom of Information Act , the Consumer Product Safety Act , the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act , the Whistleblower Protection Act , and the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act . He has been repeatedly named to lists of the 100 Most Influential Americans, including those published by Life Magazine , Time Magazine , and The Atlantic , among others. He ran for President of the United States on several occasions as an independent and third party candidate, using the campaigns to highlight under-reported issues and a perceived need for electoral reform. A two-time Nieman Fellow , Nader is the author or co-author of more than two dozen books, and was the subject of a documentary film on his life and work, An Unreasonable Man , which debuted at the 2006 Sundance Film Festival .

                trademark infringement              Trademark infringement is a violation of the exclusive rights attached to a trademark without the authorization of the trademark owner or any licensees (provided that such authorization was within the scope of the licence). Infringement may occur when one party, the infringer, uses a trademark which is identical or confusingly similar to a trademark owned by another party, in relation to products or services which are identical or similar to the products or services which the registration covers. An owner of a trademark may commence civil legal proceedings against a party which infringes its registered trademark. In the United States, the Trademark Counterfeiting Act of 1984 criminalized the intentional trade in counterfeit goods and services.  : 485–486 If the respective marks and products or services are entirely dissimilar, trademark infringement may still be established if the registered mark is well known pursuant to the Paris Convention . In the United States, a cause of action for use of a mark for such dissimilar services is called trademark dilution . In some jurisdictions a party other than the owner (e.g., a licensee) may be able to pursue trademark infringement proceedings against an infringer if the owner fails to do so.

                landing page      In online marketing , a landing page , sometimes known as a  lead capture page  or a  lander , or a  destination page , is a single web page that appears in response to clicking on a search engine optimized search result or an online advertisement .  The landing page will usually display directed sales copy that is a logical extension of the advertisement, search result or link. Landing pages are used for lead generation . The actions that a visitor takes on a landing page is what determines an advertiser’s conversion rate.  Landing pages are often linked to social media , e-mail campaigns or search engine marketing campaigns in order to enhance the effectiveness of the advertisements. The general goal of a landing page is to convert site visitors into sales or leads . If the goal is to obtain a lead, the landing page will include some method for the visitor to get into contact with the company, usually a phone number, or an inquiry form. If a sale is required, the landing page will usually have a link for the visitor to click, which will then send them to a shopping cart or a checkout area. By analyzing activity generated by the linked URL, marketers can use click-through rates and conversion rate to determine the success of an advertisement. 

                Penguin               Google Penguin is a codename  for a Google algorithm update that was first announced on April 24, 2012. The update is aimed at decreasing search engine rankings of websites that violate Google’s Webmaster Guidelines  by using now declared black-hat SEO techniques involved in increasing artificially the ranking of a webpage by manipulating the number of links pointing to the page. Such tactics are commonly described as link schemes.  According to Google’s John Mueller  , Google has announced all updates to the Penguin filter to the public. 

                SEO        Search engine optimization ( SEO ) is the process of affecting the online visibility of a website or a web page in a web search engine ‘s unpaid results—often referred to as natural,  organic , or earned results. In general, the earlier (or higher ranked on the search results page), and more frequently a website appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search engine’s users; these visitors can then be converted into customers.  SEO may target different kinds of search, including image search , video search , academic search ,  news search, and industry-specific vertical search engines. SEO differs from local search engine optimization in that the latter is focused on optimizing a business’ online presence so that its web pages will be displayed by search engines when a user enters a local search for its products or services. The former instead is more focused on national or international searches. As an Internet marketing strategy, SEO considers how search engines work, the computer programmed algorithms which dictate search engine behavior, what people search for, the actual search terms or keywords typed into search engines, and which search engines are preferred by their targeted audience. Optimizing a website may involve editing its content, adding content, doing HTML , and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines. Promoting a site to increase the number of backlinks , or inbound links, is another SEO tactic. By May 2015, mobile search had surpassed desktop search.  In 2015, it was reported that Google is developing and promoting mobile search as a key feature within future products. In response, many brands are beginning to take a different approach to their Internet marketing strategies

                PPC        Pay-per-click ( PPC ), also known as cost per click ( CPC ), is an internet advertising model used to direct traffic to websites, in which an advertiser pays a publisher (typically a website owner or a network of websites) when the ad is clicked. Pay-per-click is commonly associated with first-tier search engines (such as Google AdWords and Microsoft Bing Ads). With search engines , advertisers typically bid on keyword phrases relevant to their target market . In contrast, content sites commonly charge a fixed price per click rather than use a bidding system. PPC display advertisements, also known as banner ads , are shown on web sites with related content that have agreed to show ads and are typically not pay-per-click advertising. Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have also adopted pay-per-click as one of their advertising models. However, websites can offer PPC ads. Websites that utilize PPC ads will display an advertisement when a keyword query matches an advertiser’s keyword list, or when a content site displays relevant content. Such advertisements are called sponsored links or sponsored ads , and appear adjacent to, above, or beneath organic results on search engine results pages, or anywhere a web developer chooses on a content site.  The PPC advertising model is open to abuse through click fraud ,  although Google and others have implemented automated systems  to guard against abusive clicks by competitors or corrupt web developers. 

                Google Analytics             Google Analytics is a freemium web analytics service offered by Google that tracks and reports website traffic.  Google launched the service in November 2005 after acquiring Urchin .  Google Analytics is now the most widely used web analytics service on the Internet.  Google Analytics is offered also in two additional versions: the subscription-based Google Analytics 360 ,  previously Google Analytics Premium , targeted at enterprise users, and Google Analytics for Mobile Apps , an SDK that allows gathering usage data from iOS and Android Apps. 

                contextual advertising  Contextual advertising is a form of targeted advertising for advertisements appearing on websites or other media, such as content displayed in mobile browsers . The advertisements themselves are selected and served by automated systems based on the identity of the user and the content displayed